dieselmann's Tech Page

Repair tips

Most repair procedures on the PowerStroke are pretty straight-forward. However, sometimes after doing certain repairs, everyone comes up with their own way of doing things either to make the job faster or easier. Here are some methods I've developed to perform the most common repairs.

Fuel injectors
Fuel filter housing (94-97)
Fuel lift pump
Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR)
High pressure oil pump
Glow plugs

Injector removal/replacement:
With re-development of the injector o-rings, early assembly mistakes, as well as problems with fuel contamination, this job is probably one of the most common repairs.
When replacing injector o-rings, it's recommended that all the injectors be resealed using the most recent kits--F8TZ-9229-AA. When replacing injectors, use the correct parts for the given emissions--Federal F7TZ-9E527-ARM; California F8TZ-9E527-ARM.
Any time a valve cover is removed, the injectors hold-down bolts on that bank should checked for torque. Early engines from 94-95 where assembled with the injectors torqued to 106 in/lbs. This caused the potential for the injectors to work loose damaging the o-rings. If any injector hold-down torque is found to be less than 100 in/lbs, then all the injectors should be resealed. The correct torque on the hold-down bolts is 120 in/lbs.
On 94 and early 95 F-series with air conditioning, half the evaporator plenum must be removed to access the #7 injector and to make removing and installing the RH valve cover easier. On 95-97, the A/C vacuum reservoir can be removed instead. 99's only need the intercooler piping removed. To remove the valve covers on the Econoline, the A/C compressor and alternator have to be removed.
The biggest concern on this job is the prevention of internal engine damage caused by oil or fuel entering the cylinders and resulting in a hydraulic lock of the engine. I purge the oil from the rails in the head by removing the oil supply hoses and the two rear 5/8" hex plugs from the tops of the heads (the 99 engine requires a special tool), and gently blowing the rails out with compressed air. There are actualy two aluminum plugs inside the valve covers for this purpose, but they are usually frozen and "round off". On the back of each head there is a fuel rail drain that has a 1/4" square drive for a ratchet. If you can access them, unscrew each one full turn. If you can't, don't worry, you can deal with fuel in the cylinder(s) easy enough later.
If you haven't removed the valve covers already, do it; also remove the gaskets and Under Valve Cover harnesses, taking care not to drop the injector connector seals on harnesses with plastic locks (the harnesses with wire flip-locks don't use seals).
Remove the spill-spouts from all the injectors you are replacing/servicing. If you don't they will get damaged.
If you are removing more than one injector on either bank, allways remove the rear-most injector that is being replaced/serviced first. This will ensure that any oil or fuel in that head is isolated in one cylinder. Example: if you are replacing injectors 1 and 5, remove #5 first.
Remove the first injector by removing its lower/outer hold-down bolt, then sliding the hold-down up towards the center of the engine. Carefully pry under the hold-down with a bar to lift the injector from its well and remove it from the engine. If you are servicing any injectors on the opposate bank, remove the rear most one to be serviced/replaced in the same way.
Remove any fuel or oil that may have entered the cylinders by bumping the engine over by hand or with a remote starter. Use cardboard over the valve train to minimize the amount of spray from the cylinders. Opening the fuel filter drain will pervent any more fuel from entering the heads, and having the supply hoses removed will do the same for the oil.
With the rear most cylinders purged, all the remaing injectors can be removed as required, keeping them in order for installation in the same cylinder.
Inspect each injector well for foreign debris, and clean as required. If any injectors are missing the copper compression ring, retrieve it from the well. Inspect each well for debris and clean as necessary.
When replacing the o-rings, use the latest-level kits--F8TZ-9229-AA
--and when installing the blue/black lower oil seal, lube it with clean oil and push it directly onto the injector--don't work it on like a bicycle tire, this will cause it to strech too much.
Dip each injector into clean oil before installing. Push down on the injector until it seats while holding the hold-down up to clear the upper bolt--do not hammer on the solenoid body. If necessary use a drift and tap on the hold-down to seat the injector. Install the hold-down screws and spill-spouts, torqueing to 120 in/lbs. Install the valve cover gaskets and UVC harnesses, ensure that each glow plug is connected, and connect the engine harness to the gasket. Before installing the valve covers, check the connections by running the Injector Buzz test.
Connect the oil supply hoses, close the fuel filter and rail drains. Add a pint of fuel lubricity conditioner--F8AZ-9C077-AA to whichever tank you will be test driving on. With the rear oil rail plugs still removed, crank the engine over until oil runs from either rail, install that plug and continue to crank until oil runs from the other, then install that plug. Take care not to damage the o-rings (P/N F4TZ-9N693-A) on the rail plugs and torque the plugs to 21 ft/lbs. When installing the intercooler piping on the 99 engines, ensure the hoses are positioned correctly and the clamps are tight. Restore the remaining items (A/C plenum, vacuum reservoir, ect.) leaving the engine show cover off, and crank the engine until it starts.
Test drive the vehicle for 20 minutes in fourth gear or with the overdrive cancelled to purge the remaining air from the oil and fuel rails. After the test drive, flush whatever oil is standing in the engine valley with a solvent while the engine is warm (to allow the residue to evaporate) in a well ventilated area, catching the run-off in a drain pan at the rear of the engine. Reinstall the engine show cover.

Turbocharger removal:
Most of this procedure was developed for 97 and older F-series trucks. Click
here for the procedure on 99 and newer engines. On E-vans the turbo is accessable from the rear. The basic sequence can still be used as an outline.
Start by removing the nuts on the turbo outlet pipe where it connects to the catalytic converter. Remove the marmon clamp holding the outlet pipe to the turbo--you may have to remove the clamp's nut and bolt, then break the pipe loose by pushing and pulling on it from under the truck. Once the outlet pipe is loose from the turbo, reconnect the cat converter flange with the nuts loose to hold the pipe out of the way. Loosen the bolts and nuts retaining the turbo inlet pipes to the exhaust manifolds. Remove the turbo outlet pipe from the turbine housing and the intake "Y" pipe from the compressor housing. Plug the intake ports to prevent foreign material from entering the engine.
On the left side of the turbo, behind the compressor housing, there is a clamp that holds the EPR solenoid to the turbo pedestal. Remove the bolt and clamp leaving the EPR solenoid in place. Using a stubby 15mm wrench or box-end crowsfoot, loosen the two lower inlet nuts--if using a stubby wrench, you'll have to pry against the wrench with a bar to break the nuts loose. Use a 1/4" 15mm universal socket to remove the nuts. Remove the two upper inlet bolts.
Remove the two front mounting bolts from the pedestal. Remove the two rear mounting bolts, starting with the left one, using a 1/4" drive 10mm universal socket and 6" extension. If the rear bolts are frozen, the LH one may be accessable with a short 3/8" drive 10mm universal socket, but you'll have to remove the EPR valve housing from the turbine to reach the RH one. The collar on the link slides towards the turbo and then the link can be pushed down off the bellcrank. The turbo will raise slightly when removing the right rear mounting bolt as the socket contacts the turbocharger housing.
Unplug the EPR harness and roll the turbo forward off the inlet collector and lift it from the engine.
The pedestal can be replaced seperatly from the turbocharger. The new pedestal comes with an adjustable EPR valve link which is shipped clamped in the extended position. Hold the valve closed and screw the link socket in or out until it slips over the bellcrank. Tighten the lock nut and remove the clamp holding the EPR linkage. When reassembling/installing use new yellow sealing o-rings (P/N F4TZ-6N653-A and -B) held in place with silicone dielectric grease.
Some replacement turbo chargers are supplied with 13mm-head mounting bolts, and are not accessable in the two rear pedestal holes--use the originals. Insert the two rear pedestal bolts in their holes and wrap a rubber band around the heads to hold them in place while you reposition the turbo. Install in the reverse order of removal, but only start the pedestal bolts until all pedestal and inlet bolts are threaded into their holes before torquing begining with the RH rear pedestal bolt--pedestal bolts 18 ft/lbs.; exhaust flanges and inlet 36 ft/lbs.
Remember to reinstall the EPR solenoid hold-down clamp. Line up the turbo outlet pipe with the turbo and install/snug the marmon clamp keeping the flanges aligned, tighten the cat-converter flange, then torque the marmon clamp to 100 in/lbs. Start the engine and look for oil or exhaust leaks.

The 99 and up turbo should be faster, but it's not. You need to disconnect the two intercooler pipes, disconnect the Y-pipe from the intake and turbo and unplug the wastegate solenoid, MAT sensor and Manifold air heater (if equipped). Disconnect the waste gate hoses from the wastegate and air supply duct and move the Y-pipe out of the way. Plug the intake ports to prevent anything from falling into the engine. Disconnect the air supply duct from the turbo and loosen the marmon clamps from the turbine inlet and outlet. From under the truck, diconnect the exhaust down pipe from the cat or cat delete pipe and push and pull it to break it loose from the turbo, then loosly install the flange nuts at the cat/cat delete pipe. Loosen the bolts retaining the turbo inlet pipes to the exhaust manifolds. Remove the turbo down pipe from the turbine housing. Remove the two bolts which attach the turbo to the pedestal and pivot the turbo up. If equiped with an EPR valve, reach underneath and unhook the rod from the valve by releasing the clip. Wiggle the turbo around to breakt the inlet flange loose on the turbine; you may have to pry the marmon clamp off of the flange to separate the turbo from the inlet flange. Slide the turbo forward and remove it from the truck. The pedestal can m=noe be removed if necessary. When reistalling, use silicone dielectric grease to hold the pedestal o-rings in place. Position the turbo onto the inlet flange, aligning the dowel pin and install the marmon clamp loosly. Keeping the turbo and inlet flange aligned, reconnect the EPR valve and rod and lower the turbo onto the pedestal and torque the bolts to 30 ft/lbs. Install the exhaust down pipe onto the turbine housing and snug down the marmon clamp. Under the truck tighten the down pipe and inlet pipes, then torque the two marmon clamps at the turbine housing to 100 in/lbs. Reinstall the remaining parts ensuring to align the intercooler hoses properly, start the engine and check for exhaust and oil leaks.

Fuel filter housing removal, 97 and older:
To gain access to the HP oil pump, replace Injection Pressure Regulator valve or lift pump, or to service the filter housing, sometimes it's easiest to get the housing off of the engine. Removal is not that difficult except for the hoses.
Remove the intake Y-pipe and plug the openings into the heads. Open the water seperator drain to minimize the amount of fuel dumping into the engine valley. Loosen the hose clamps on the return line at the pressure regulator block, the primary (upper) lift pump hose at the filter housing, and the secondary (lower) lift pump hose at the lift pump. Remove the two head return lines at the pressure regulator block. Disconnect the harness connector at the RH side of the filter housing. Remove the two mounting bolts at the rear of the housing base. Lift up on the LH side of the housing to disengage the return line; pivot the housing forward to disengage the primary pump hose; pivot the housing back to disengage the secondary hose; and turn the housing clockwise to disengage the drain hose. Disconnect the IPR valve wire and remove the housing from the vehicle. Any o-rings or sensors on the housing can be serviced, and removal of the pressure regulator block for service/cleaning can now be done(the regulator can be removed with the housing installed on the vehicle, but with risk of o-ring damage on reassembly). Reverse the procedure for installation, taking care not to damage the hoses when their nipples are inserted in each. Do not over tighten the hose clamps or they will strip.

Lift pump removal:
This service is not difficult when working on a Federal-emissions F-series. The intake Y-pipe and fuel filter housing need to be removed first. Then, using an 1 1/4" box wrench (having two different wrenches works best because of differing angles on the box ends give you a wider working range) or socket on a flex-head ratchet, loosen the bango bolt fitting at the rear of the pump. Take care not to drop or damage the steel sealing washers. After removing the bango bolt, remove the pump mounting bolts and lift the pump straight out of its hole. If the pump seems stuck, use a rolling-head type pry bar (lady-slipper, duck bill, crowsfoot) to pry it up straight. Pulling staight up will prevent the pump push rod from catching and falling back down into the engine requiring engine removal to retrieve the rod. On California-emission vehicles the bango fitting is too far under the turbo and fuel line damper to reach with a wrench and access is restricted for using a socket (you may get the bolt out, but good luck getting the it back in). In this case and with the Econoline due to its body design, it is necessary to remove the turbocharger to remove the lift pump instead of the fuel filter housing. In all cases, when instaling the new lift pump, lube the o-ring on the pump shank with dielectric grease and start the bango bolt a couple of threads before installing a tightening the mounting bolts. Again, take care not to damage the sealing washers. Once the pump is secured to the block, tighten the bango bolt to 40 ft/lbs.

Injection Pressure Regulator valve removal:
To remove the IPR you can remove the fuel filter housing or at least loosen it to allow room for the wrench and to manuver the valve in and out. The 98.5/99 IPR is accesed easily from behind the fuel filter. Remove the air intake Y pipe and plug openings. Remove the fuel return hoses from the pressure regulator block, remove the filter housing bolts and lean the housing back. Unplug the EOT sensor and IPR valve. Use a 3/4" wrench to remove the solenoid nut, spacer and solenoid coil. Using an 1 1/8" wrench (or a very deep socket--the filter housing will have to be removed for this) remove the IPR valve. Make sure that the replacement IPR is the same level part as the old one. Engines built up to serial number 187099 in early 95 use P/N F4TZ-9C968-C; engine number 187100 and up use F5TZ-9C968-A. Do not use sealer on the IPR threads, it could plug the orifice in the threaded area. Torque the IPR to 35 ft/lbs and the solenoid retaining nut to 53 in/lbs. You'll have to drive the truck to puge any air from the HP oil system and clear any codes set during the replacement.

High Pressure oil pump removal:
When removing the HP oil pump, remove the fuel filter housing to allow more room to maneuver the pump in and out. Remove the EOT sensor from the reservoir to allow oil to drain, remove the HP oil pump gear access plate from the front of the timing cover. If necessary, remove the heater hose and nipple from the water pump and remove the gear retaining nut. Carefully remove the oil reservoir--it has a partial RTV gasket, so it may adhere to the timing cover. Remove the two oil supply hoses for the HP oil pump and the two retaining bolts anf remove the pump from the engine. Inspect the HP oil pump gasket for damage, and both the pump and timing cover surfaces. Clean the timing cover and reservoir mating surfaces. Carefully install the new pump, taking care not to damage the gasket. Seal the top shoulder of the pump bolts with Loctite 515 Gasket Eliminator and torque the pump bolts to 24 ft/lbs. Install the gear retaining bolt and torque to 95 ft/lbs. Check the pump gear for excessive back-lash. Check the outlet fittings on the pump to make sure they are tight and install the oil lines. Install a new gasket on the oil reservoir and run a bead of Wacker T-95 or Ford F5TZ-19G204-AB gray RTV silicone along the timing cover where the gasket does not seal, install the reservoir and torque the bolts to 24 ft/lbs. Use the same silicone sealer on the gear bolt access plate and install. Finish installing the remaining components. Flush the engine valley with a suitable solvent to remove the oil spilled. The engin will have to crank awhile to resupply the reservoir in order to start. Drive to purge any air from the system and clear any codes.

Glow plug removal:
This is a straight-forward service. After removing the valve covers and unplugging the glow plug(s), loosen the glow plug a couple of turns (10mm deep socket, 1/4" drive). Then push a 4-6" piece of vacuum line over the end of he glow plug and use the hose to unscrew and remove it. Use the hose to install and screw in the glow plug, then tighten with the socket. The socket will contact the rocker arms if used to remove the glow plug. If the glow plug is difficult to turn you may be able to loosen it by working it back and forth--turn counter clockwise one turn then clockwise half a turn--until it turns freely enough that it can be loosened with the hose. If the glow plug probe is severely carboned up or swollen, the barrel may screw out of the head leaving the probe stuck in the hole. In this instance you may be able to remove the probe by removing the adjancent rocker arm and push rod to gain enough room to get ahold of the probe with a pair of needle-nose pliers. Have someone hold the pliers to prevent the probe from falling into the cylinder and use a long punch to loosen the probe by tapping it down. Once the probe is broken loose, work it up and down in the hole until it can be pulled out--some WD 40 or other solvent may help to loosen any carbon on the probe once it can moved, just remember not to use too much and to remove any residual by cranking over the engine with the glow plug out. You may be able to dislodge the seize probe by cranking over the engine, just remember to reinstall the rocker and pushrod if removed, and place a blanket or fender cover over the glow plug to keep it from shooting out. If the probe falls into the cylinder or cannot be loosened, the head will have to be removed to extract the probe. To prevent damage, remove all the glow plugs on the head to be removed and install them after the head has been reinstalled.

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